Ways You Can Get More essay writing services While Spending Less

 DAY 3 DETAIL CHART—Model using the topic sentences from your Organization Chart to add details on your Detail Chart. essay writing service the topic sentences in the boxes, then list details related to each topic sentence. Try to come up with a personal connection or experience for each topic sentence. This helps give the essay a personal touch! Have students write their topic sentences in the Detail Charts, then talk with a friend as they add details to each box. Use the last 5 minutes of class to have students share their Detail Charts with the class or in small groups. (40 minutes)

*DAYS 4 & 5 ROUGH DRAFT—Model using ideas from the Organization Chart and Detail Chart to write the rough draft. This will take a few days. Use this time to model and teach mini-lessons that improve writing such as using transition words, prepositional phrases, hooks and conclusions, elaboration, including adjectives and adverbs, etc. Refer to your school’s curriculum for resources on helping students develop their rough drafts. The organizer is the frame for the writing at this point, but you will need to supplement with lessons to help your writers grow. Conference with students to make sure they are following the structure, staying on topic, using their charts as a guide when they write their drafts, etc. They need lots of support at this point. (80 minutes)

*DAYS 6 & 7 REVISE AND EDIT—Refer to your school’s curriculum for support with revising and editing. I use ARMS for revising which stands for Add, Remove, Move, Substitute and CUPS for editing which stands for Capitalization, Usage, Punctuation, and Spelling. Model this process and teach students to work cooperatively with a writing partner. (80 minutes)

*DAY 8 FINAL COPY—Model taking information from the Rough Draft page to the Final Copy page. I teach my students to indent for each paragraph but NOT to skip lines. Then, give students time to write. Before they are allowed to turn the final copy in, I ask them to take a short break before going back one more time to read their work and fix silly mistakes. (40 minutes)

Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A) create brief compositions that:

(i) establish a central idea in a topic sentence;

(ii) include supporting sentences with simple facts, details, and explanations; and

(iii) contain a concluding statement.

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Research Papers: Student Handout

Throughout your school career, you will be asked to write many research papers. A research paper represents a gathering of information that you have worked to evaluate, organize, and present in a specific, organized format. It is important that you are familiar with the rules regarding research papers so that you can write the best paper possible, and avoid making embarrassing mistakes by including incorrect information or misrepresenting or misquoting your sources.

Step One: Choosing a Topic

Whether your topic has been assigned to you, or you are able to choose a topic of your own, it is important to keep your topic as narrowed and focused as possible. For example, if your assignment is to write a 2-3 page paper, you will need to narrow down your topic so that your information will fit. It is impossible to adequately cover “The Most Important People of the 20th Century” in 2-3 pages! But, “The Most Influential Celebrities of 2012” may be more attainable.

Step Two: Researching Questions

Now that you have narrowed the focus of your paper, you must create appropriate questions to guide your research. Ask yourself: What do I need to find out? What type of information do I need? What do I know about this topic? What do I need to know about this topic? What do my readers need to know?

Step Three: Pre-Writing

It is important to begin your pre-writing before you start gathering information for your report. If you have thought about the direction of your paper, you will be less likely to be influenced by outside sources in your research. If you don’t know much about your topic, try to complete the form with generalities or assumptions. Once you have done your research, you can replace any inaccurate information.

Step Four: Gathering Information

A source is anything you use to get your information, such as the Internet, book, newspaper, magazine, interview, poll, map, video, etc. Often, teachers will require you to obtain and use a certain minimum number of sources for your research paper. Additionally, they may require you to use specific sources, such as an encyclopedia, biography, newspaper, website, etc. Research Notes/Sources handouts can help while you gather your information at this stage.

It is important to note that there are two general types of resources: primary and secondary. You may use either or both. Primary sources are those that offer first- hand knowledge and information. Autobiographies, memoirs, diaries, journals, and anything created during the time period in which you are researching is considered a primary source. Secondary sources provide an interpretation of primary sources. Secondary sources include reference books, biographies, essays, and journal articles.

Name ______________________________________ Period _______

When you have decided which types of sources you would like to use, you need to take your questions to the library and search for resources that answer those questions. As you gather your information, you may also create more questions, or modify the ones you already have, as long as they still are within your focused topic.

Step Five: Note-taking

Take notes from each of your resources using abbreviations, summaries, phrases or words. Leave out unimportant words such as a, an, and the. Write out the entire sentence ONLY when you plan on using it as a quote in your paper. Keep track of the resources you have used in order to create your Works Cited page. As you take notes, write the information about the source on the Sources page. “Note A” should correspond to “Source A,” “Note B” to “Source B,” etc.

Step Six: Organizing

Once you have gathered all of the information you think you may need, it is time to organize your information. For each page of notes, number your information in order of importance. Arrange your notes into a logical order. Cross out any duplicate information.

Step Seven: Creating a Rough Draft

Once you have completed organizing your essay, you can begin writing the rough draft. Using lined paper, or the Research Paper Organizer, rewrite your essay, skipping every other line on the paper for editing purposes. For the rough draft, work to fix any spelling and/or punctuation errors, as well as to improve your vocabulary and sentence length. Add in your support (refer to Incorporating Quotations on pages 147-149). Finally, compile your Works Cited page.

Step Eight: Peer Editing

You are now ready to begin peer editing. Check other students’ papers for spelling, punctuation, organization, structure, etc. and really work to help them to become better writers! Once your paper has been edited by two peer editors, you are ready to begin the process of polishing your essay.

Step Nine: Polishing

The process of polishing is like putting the icing on the cake. It is at this point that you will add bridges, fix spelling and punctuation errors, improve sentence length, and make sure all information has been credited for a final product!

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Sample Student Research Paper

English 155
26 July 2015

Bariatric Surgery Reexamined: The Times Are Changing

In the 1970’s and early 1980’s, many people, both inside and outside the medical community, viewed bariatric surgical procedures as being radical, unnecessary and dangerous. Early on procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and adjustable gastric banding (AGB), frequently resulted in complications ranging from infection, liver disease and internal bleeding. As a result, the public at large came to the perception that these treatments were not safe. In the past 10 years, however, that opinion is being re-examined in light of some new and compelling evidence regarding the health and psychosocial benefits of bariatric surgery for adults as well as adolescents.

In the 2007 International Journal of Obesity Article entitled “Long-Term Health and Psychosocial Outcomes from Surgically Induced Weight Loss” the author, Dr. EMH Mathus- Vliegen, related the findings of his team’s study in which they found that the benefits for morbidly obese patients (patients who have a Body Mass Index of 40 or greater) who elected to undergo gastric bypass surgery are more than just cosmetic. The author stated that his study found there are long-term health benefits which positively impact the quality of life. In the article, Dr. Mathus-Vliegen concluded by suggesting that these long-term benefits are present even in cases in which the patient does not engage in a medically supervised post-surgical treatment plan. (to continued)

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Research Paper Grading Rubric

Introduction /10

Grabs reader’s attention, interesting and relevant

Thesis statement /15

Thesis is clear, has an opinion, fits scope of paper

Organization /15

Essay is logically organized, paragraphs have topic sentences and clear transitions

Research /25

Outside sources are appropriate and effectively integrated into essay, proper balance of research/author opinion

Conclusion /10

Conclusion is effective, not just a re-statement of thesis

Conventions /15

Few errors in sentence structure, grammar, spelling and punctuation

Citations /10

All outside sources are cited and citations are in correct format. Works cited page included and in proper format

______________

/ 100

text by Laura Torres

 


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Avoiding Plagiarism in Research Paper Writing

Plagiarism is the use of another person’s words or ideas without crediting the source. It is a serious breach of academic honesty. At the very least, you will fail the assignment, and sometimes the consequences are much more severe. Even if you don’t get caught, you have let yourself down by being dishonest and missing the opportunity to learn.

An example of plagiarism is to use someone else’s paper as your own, or directly copying information from a website or other source. You also need to avoid unintentional plagiarism, where you incorrectly use someone else’s ideas simply because you don’t know how to cite them properly. Ignorance of what constitutes plagiarism, however, is no excuse. The following guidelines will help you avoid making a mistake in Works Cited page.

Example source: “As one might imagine, Stegner was not in favor of the American Dream, or at least not the materialistic dream of status and possessions.”

Benson, Jackson. Wallace Stegner: His Life and Work. New York: Viking, 1996.
1. Direct Quotation: If you use the exact words from a source, always use quotation marks,

followed by a citation.

Correct: “As one might imagine, Stegner was not in favor of the American Dream, or at least not the materialistic dream of status and possessions” (Benson 10).

Plagiarized: As one might imagine, Stegner was not in favor of the American Dream, or at least not the materialistic dream of status and possessions.
(Missing quotation marks and citation)

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MLA formatting Tips & Tricks

  • Double space the whole paper.
  • Use an easily readable 12 point font, such as Times New Roman (this document uses
    Times New Roman).
  • The margins of the paper all the way around are 1 inch
  • Use the tab key (5 spaces) when beginning a new paragraph.
  • Put your last name and page number in the upper right corner of each page, 1⁄2 inch from
    the top of the page.
  • On the first page, in the upper left, one inch from the top of the page, list your name, the
    instructor’s name, the class and the date. The date should be in this format: 21 March
    2012.
  • Center the title. Do not use a different, larger or bold font. Do not put extra space

between the title and the text of the paper.

Here is a sample of the first page of an essay in MLA format

Example of 1st Page of MLA Formatted Essay

Here is a sample of the In-Text Citation Chart

In-Text Citation Chart for MLA Format

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Writing Introductions and Conclusions for Research Papers

The introduction and conclusion are critical parts of your essay. The introduction is what grabs the reader’s attention (or not!) and makes them want to read what you have to say. The conclusion is the last impression you will leave with the reader, and the last chance to persuade the reader to see your point of view.

Introductions

There are many ways to begin your paper, but the main consideration is to get the reader’s attention. Sometimes your thesis statement works well enough on its own, but often you will want to start with some other type of attention-grabber before you state your thesis. Below are three ways to consider starting your essay, and an example of each. You can also see how your thesis statement might be adjusted to make the first paragraph flow smoothly.

Thesis:  Although researchers believe that the cause for eating disorders is complicated, media images are one of the main reasons girls develop these disorders.

1. Anecdote

An anecdote is a short narrative, or story, that illustrates your point. This can be effective because the reader will want to know what happens next.

Example:

My sister wanted to be a high-fashion model like the girls in the ads she ripped story out of magazines and tacked to her wall. She was tall and beautiful, but she never felt she was thin enough. One day, after passing out in school, she was diagnosed

 

2. Interesting Information

(to be continued…)

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Research Notes Worksheet for Students

Research Notes Worksheet Sample

Title: ________________________________________

Author(s): ____________________________________

Publication: ___________________________________

Page Numbers: ________________________________

Date: ________________________________________

Main point of the article: __________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Quotes, paraphrase or notes that support the main idea (note page numbers). 1.______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

3. ______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Other Notes: ____________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

 

Let’s say your paper is about how you believe that media images of ultra-thin models contribute to eating disorders in females. This is what a body paragraph might look like, using the research sandwich method:

Your words

If young girls are constantly exposed to pictures of beautiful, thin women, they might think that they must conform to this ideal to be considered attractive and become unhappy with their bodies.

Research

One study found that exposure to media images decreases body satisfaction in girls (Wertheim et al, 47). Researcher James Thomas states that this body dissatisfaction occurs when “the individual accepts societal views of ideal weight and attractiveness and acts in a certain way to achieve the ideal body.

Your words

When girls are not happy with the way they look, they may turn to crash diets or other unhealthy eating habits in order to try and conform to an unrealistic standard of beauty.

A research sandwich can stand alone as a paragraph, or you can put two or three together if the ideas are closely related to form one longer paragraph.

It’s important to include smooth transitions from one “sandwich” to the next. Sometimes this can be accomplished in the concluding sentence of the sandwich, or in the next topic sentence, but be sure you think about the transition so your paper doesn’t seem to jump from topic to topic.

Sandwich Worksheet – Topic 1

Working Thesis: _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

Your Words (Topic sentence with your opinion): _____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Research (Direct quote or paraphrase):______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Your Words (Analysis, summary or transition): ______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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Research Sources for Research Paper

Where do I find Research Sources?

–  Academic search engines. Many schools and libraries subscribe to academic search engines such as EBSCO or Academic Search Premiere or InfoTrac. These search engines filter results so you only get academic sources that you can be sure are appropriate sources.
–  Googlescholar.com. This search engine, available to anyone, also filters results so you only get academic sources. Not every source listed is available online.
–  Library. Print sources from your school or public library that you can’t get online are available here. Asking a librarian for help is a great resource.
–  Internet search. Using a regular search engine such as google or yahoo can turn up appropriate sources, but you have to be very careful to make sure your source is appropriate for an academic research paper.

How do I tell which sources I can use?

–  The best sources are peer reviewed. This means that an article was written by an expert in the field, and reviewed for accuracy by other experts. You will find peer-reviewed articles in scholarly journals.
–  Consider where the information is coming from. Is it from a respected magazine or newspaper? Is it from a journal or reference book? Avoid blogs, personal websites, or work that has not been reviewed or edited.
–  A source should not have an agenda or bias. Avoid sources trying to sell a product or promote a certain idea.

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